Switzerland is the clear leader in innovation, and this success is due to the long-standing political commitment to attract investments in high value sectors. Evidence of this commitment can be found in the considerable funding allocated to fundamental and applied research. The amount spent on R&D represents 3% of GDP, which is significantly higher than the OECD average of 2.4%. The country can boast having submitted the most patent applications per million inhabitants in 2015, or 873. Another indicator of the quality of the research is the percentage of citations to national scientific publications by researchers from other countries. In this case, Switzerland has the highest
share of the most frequently cited scientific papers on a worldwide basis. The country also has the highest proportion of doctoral degree holders among the working age population, which can be attributed to the substantial number of foreign PhDs living in the country. In fact, 25% of students and more than 40% of researchers at Switzerland’s higher educational institutions come from abroad. The percentage is even higher, reaching 50%, at the Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL
), which, with over 120 nationalities represented on campus, takes the prize as the most cosmopolitan technical university in Europe.